Best Cash Back Credit Cards

Check out our latest recommendations and read our blog about the best cash back credit cards in Canada.

If you usually pay your credit card bills on time, you should consider rewarding yourself by getting cash back on every purchase you make. Cash back programs are not always easy to use but can sometimes get you better returns than a similar travel rewards card. Depending on the type of consumer you are, a cash back credit card may be right for you.

Best credit cards in Canada

Best credit cards in Canada

We have included the list of top 5 credit cards with cash back in 2015 below. Depending on what you look for in a card, these are some of the best credit cards in Canada. To compare the return on each card, this expense profile was used:

According to this profile of monthly expenses, in order from highest to lowest, here are the top 5 credit cards with cash back available:

1. If you spend a lot, the Good Momentum Infinite Visa can get you one of the best returns from any credit card. With this card, you get 4% cash back on gas and groceries, 2% cash back in pharmacies and on recurring bill payments and 1% cash back on the rest. The card comes with an annual fee of $ 99, but during the current promotion, the fees will be removed for the first year. However, even with the annual fee, this card pays for itself if you follow an expenditure profile similar to ours.

2. GFIC World Elite Rewards

Second online is the GFIC World Elite Rewards MasterCard, which lets you get 2% cash back on every dollar you spend with the card – no categories excluded. You will also get 10,000 points worth $ 100 when you make your first purchase. The card comes with an annual fee of $ 89, but during the current promotion, the fee will be waived for the first year and will pay for itself in the following years

3. Cash Express Simply Cash Card

The Cash Express Simply Cash Card is one of the newest credit cards in Canada, and comes with the best Introductory Money-Back Credit Card offer: 5% on gas, groceries, and restaurants for the first six months. Depending on the spending profile we have developed, this card will get you the biggest return in the first six months.

Best cashback credit cards with no annual fee available


When the promotion ends, this card remains third in this list, making this card one of the best cashback credit cards with no annual fee available.

4. Cash Express Simply Cash Preferred Card

Cash Express also offers an enhanced version of this card: the Cash Express Simply Cash Preferred Card. With this card, you will get 5% cash back on everything for the first six months, then 1.5% after, with a spending limit of $ 100,000 (after the rate drops to 1.25% cash back). You will also get access to 24/7 customer service and extensive Cash Express insurance coverage.

5. Credit Card Melon Discounts

The Melon Discount Card with no annual fee is a great card, if you want to avoid an annual fee or Cash Express credit cards. This card offers impressive flexibility as it allows you to choose up to 3 categories of your choice to receive 2% Cash Back. On the rest of your purchases, you will receive 1%. The ultimate benefit of this card is the fact that it is no annual fee.

Benefits of Cash Back Programs


The biggest benefit of using a cash back credit card is the simplicity of getting money for your purchases. While some travel reward credit cards give you more value, receiving cash back gives you more freedom. With cash back, no need to worry about the availability of a flight, blackout dates or redemption levels. Bringing back with cash back is also a lot easier. Instead of having to deviate from your path in order to make purchases in certain stores, you can buy anywhere you want and be assured that you will get cash back on every transaction.

When choosing a cash back credit card, there are different things you will want to consider:

  1. Annual Fees – No annual fee cards typically offer lower payments compared to cards that have them. Depending on your annual expenses it may or may not be advantageous for you to get a premium credit card with an annual fee.
  2. Sign Up Bonus – Search for cards with sign-up bonuses, such as annual fees removed or high percentage of cash back during the initial period. Bonuses are very good sides that can soften the deal for any card.
  3. Categories – Many cash back credit cards offer better returns for expenses in certain categories, such as gas or groceries. It is therefore important to understand a cashback program in its entirety.
  4. Returns – The returns you get from a cash back credit card is probably the most important aspect; Usually, this is expressed as a percentage of what you spend. The most common return for cashback credit cards is 1.00%, so use this percentage as a benchmark when comparing different cards.

TO YOU: What is your favorite cash back credit card and why?

What is a loan? Is it easy to take?

By means of a loan agreement, the loan provider undertakes to transfer the ownership of the recipient a certain amount of money or items marked only as to the species, and the recipient undertakes to return the same amount of money or the same amount of items of the same grade and quality.
The loan agreement , whose value exceeds $ 1,000, requires document form 1 .


Who can lend?

borrow money

Anyone with legal capacity can grant us a loan . Legal capacity is the ability to acquire rights and obligations in civil law relations. Loans are provided by various entities and even natural persons. Banks have the right to collect money from other physical and legal entities as well as organizational units. Non-bank entities do not have this right. A condition for a business entity to grant a loan to someone is that they must have their own money.


Where money from?

The person or entity who wants to grant loans must be the owner of the borrowed funds. This means that you must have your own money to be able to borrow it to someone else.


Is it easy to take a loan?

Where money from?

Unlike the bank, companies granting loans are not obliged to verify the applicant in BIK. Non-bank institutions are most often chosen by people whom the bank refused to grant a loan due to lack of creditworthiness. What puts the bank first, i.e. financial situation and creditworthiness , is less important in non-bank institutions. Non-bank institutions are aimed precisely at acquiring customers whom the bank refused to grant a loan. By itself, it tells us that taking a loan is much easier, but not necessarily cheaper.


Loan costs

Loan costs

The nominal interest rate remains the same as for loans . A statutory upper limit for interest rates applies to non-bank institutions to the same extent as banks or credit unions. Within the admissible limits, they may not, however, exceed the statutory height.

However, non-bank institutions impose much larger amounts of additional costs when granting loans. Non-bank loans offered by institutions are more expensive than a bank loan . The fact that the bank does not want to grant a loan often indicates that the applicant is in poor financial condition. However, for some reason, we still need extra money. Therefore, non-bank institutions bear greater risk, which is why additional costs are higher. Much higher additional costs as a consequence also lead to the fact that the APRC of the loan is much larger than the loan .



Confidence in the security of online loans – Immediate loans

Trust in the security of online loans

If you are one of the people who is wondering where to ask for a personal loan, the answer is quite simple, and it is on the Internet, since in Spain there is currently a large number of offers offered by banks, but it must be Choose the safest option that is really reliable for people who apply for the personal loan.


Online trust

So online trust is one of the points to touch today, so for several years now, it has been very clear that this online business model consists of everything related to personal loans, which are fast, but also offer users the guarantees of security, protection, and transparency to users.

In Spain there is a quite important program, it is about online trust, which is one of the organizations that has been created to have a better self-control in everything related to online loans , since its main objective is precise as indicated its name, the one of increasing the confidence in the users, this due to the fact that its data enter people in the online world.

But not only its function is there, but there is also, for example, the protection of the consumer, anyone who buys, navigates and performs any type of operations through the Internet.
In other words, the large number of banking entities in Spain that are registered in the Online Confidence program will have all the personal data of their clients safeguarded, without them being filtered by other parties.


Security in Online Confidence processes

As previously mentioned, the Confianza Online program provides full security to users who perform all types of transactions on the Internet, such as requesting a quick credit without paperwork, among some others. This is due in large part to the evaluation that is generated from time to time, which by the way is quite exhaustive and has ethical aspects of the web.

As if that were not enough when customers ask themselves where to ask for a personal loan, the answer for many experts is simple, and they will always recommend those institutions that are under the Confianza Online seal, since it has the transparency of the the most demanding privacy policies in Spain, as well as the terms and conditions that are required in any process that requires the collection of personal information from customers, since they will have very good commercial and contractual practices, which are basic for the financial companies work in the right way.

It is precisely for this reason that all financial institutions that subscribe to the Online Trust program will have a claims system, which is one of the tools that has been created to mediate the problems that exist between the consumer and the consumer. the company, the best thing of all is that it will not have any cost for the user, with which impartiality is guaranteed to the maximum in all the verdicts that are had during the process.

That is to say that problems can arise related to a fast credit online, in which one of the users does not completely agree on the terms and conditions that he signed or they could change, so there he enters fully to work the system of claims, where you can solve the problem in a very healthy way.


Final words

So in general terms all customers of online loans in banks in Spain will have the certainty that they are enrolled in this tool of trust, which may have the guarantee that it is a firm that will ensure your rights as a consumer, so nothing will be violated during the request, contracting and management of all minicréditos that are carried out. So, if you ask where to ask for a personal loan the answer is simple, the entity that has the Online Trust.


Trust in the security of online loans Rate this publication

Loans | Immediate and Online

You who enjoy the Fallas like no other, a good Sunday paella and a walk around the Oceanogràfic, but you have finished the budget for this year’s activities and you need a little help, you have arrived at the right place! We offer you the largest network of lenders in Valencia to get the personal loans in Valencia you are looking for. Thanks to our comparator, your search for quick money in Valencia will come to fruition.


You should know that with Scaramouche, the loans in Valencia are adapted to all your needs, even if you are looking for loans with ASNEF we have for you the definitive way to get easy credit. Do not hesitate and request the best fast loans in Valencia from the market. Are you interested? Keep reading…

I want my loan now!

What loans in Valencia can be requested?


What loans in Valencia can be requested?

The loans in Valencia are financial products specially designed for the inhabitants of the Turia capital. In a city in which the consumption and the fast pace of life require a financial capacity to assume all the expenses, every time one opts more for the fast loans.

Has the rent bubble fallen completely and do you need to provide 3 months deposit to rent a new apartment? Do you need financial aid for this year’s Fallas? At Scaramouche we have found the ideal solution: fast paperless loans, urgent loans, loans with Asnef, microcredit, credit 24 hours, online loans, personal loans, immediate loans and loans without endorsement.

The financing you need can not wait? Forget the long queues in your bank, do not receive more negatives or pass through all the bureaucratic formalities. In Scaramouche we trust our clients and in the power of the second opportunities to make your dreams and projects come true, we offer you the possibility of accessing online loans on the spot. Valencia is a unique city full of possibilities … in Scaramouche we offer you the best selection of loans so you do not miss any of them.

Request your loan now!

How do I apply for quick money?

 How do I apply for quick money in Valencia?

Before applying for any type of loan, it is necessary to know the conditions beforehand and be clear about all the points, so I invite you to continue reading. The loan application and return conditions in Valencia are clear and transparent from the beginning.

In just 15 minutes of application and 24 hours of transfer you can correct the debt that prevents you from moving forward or you can afford the trip you have deserved throughout the year. You just need an internet connection and your mobile device or computer. No small print, no complications. And in case of any doubt, you will always have at our disposal our expert agents who will attend any of your queries.

It does not matter if you are looking for quick loans or personal loans, or if you figure in a list of defaulters such as the ASNEF, in Scaramouche you will find your site. Request the amount you need for your projects from loans of 100 euros or even loans of 600 euros.


If you are looking for lenders in Valencia, you may not know where to start. There are many options and it is difficult to know what criteria to follow to distinguish the best and safest in the market.

Well, in Scaramouche we offer loans in Valencia with previously approved and certified lenders. In addition, you have a network of advisors who will be happy to answer any questions you may have before, during or after the process. Because in Scaramouche our priority is to be transparent, to offer confidence and to know that we have helped people who otherwise would not have obtained their financing through traditional banking.

Apply for your loan now!

It does not matter if you do not have payroll or endorsement, or if you figure in a list of defaulters like the ASNEF, in Scaramouche you will find your site. The conditions of request and return are clear and transparent from the beginning. In just 15 minutes of application and 24 hours of transfer you can correct the debt that prevents you from moving forward or you can afford the trip you have deserved throughout the year.

Do not hesitate and request your money loans in Valencia. Thanks to our network of lenders and advisors, you will find the fastest, safest and most suitable option for your needs.

Loans in other cities

 Loans in other cities


Conflict after Business Takeover Law } Business Loans

Many business takeovers are progressing well: the company is transferred, the purchase price is paid and no problems arise. Unfortunately, it is often the case that in one way or another there is indeed a conflict after the business takeover.

In this article we look at what kind of conflicts can arise after a company takeover. In addition, we look at how you can best deal with a conflict after a business takeover.

Impactable risks during business takeover

 Impactable risks during business takeover

The chance of a conflict after business takeover is considerably greater when:

  • no or insufficient due diligence has been done (including checking of the figures, but also the identification of risks with current contracts);
  • no (good) acquisition agreement has been concluded.

With good due diligence and the conclusion of a good agreement to take over the company, many problems can be prevented. It is advisable to involve a good lawyer in this due diligence, who is then also involved in the negotiation of the readmission agreement.

Conflict after company takeover

 Conflict after company takeover

If the due diligence is well done and a good acquisition agreement has been concluded, then the chance of problems is considerably smaller. Nevertheless, a conflict can still arise. Consider, for example, a situation where:

  • the buying party does not pay the purchase price (in full);
  • the selling party does not (fully) transfer the business;
  • the selling party has given the wrong information;
  • the selling party has withheld information;
  • both the selling party and the buying party assumed an incorrect assumption;
  • despite the existence of a good agreement, discussion arises about (the interpretation of) the agreement;
  • there are unforeseen circumstances that cause a conflict.

The conflicts that may arise are also dependent on the type of business transfer. Certainly when it concerns a business takeover that has been shaped by a share transfer, something often goes wrong. After all: just then the entire company is taken over, including all obligations and risks.

Resolve conflict

 Resolve conflict

Has a conflict after business takeover arisen and do you not come out with the other party? Then it is no superfluous luxury to hire a good lawyer, especially given the high importance that is involved in most business acquisitions. Depending on the precise circumstances, a lawyer can check whether there are possibilities, for example:

  • to oblige the other party to comply with the takeover correctly;
  • to (temporarily) withhold (part of) the purchase price still to be paid;
  • claim compensation;
  • to completely (or partially) reverse the business takeover.

Conflict after company takeover – Conclusion

Conflict after company takeover - Conclusion

Company takeovers can be a source of conflict. The chance of a conflict after a company takeover is smaller with good due diligence and with a good takeover agreement, but the complete exclusion of conflicts is not possible. This is certainly the case if, for example, the other party does not fulfill its obligations or has withheld information.

Depending on the precise situation, there are often opportunities to get out of the conflict well. Is there any conflict in your case after a business takeover? Contact us, we are happy to assist you in finding a good solution.

There Is No Contract Fee For Up To 6 Months} Credit Loans



We advise you to use your e-mail as your username. This Act regulates the application of crisis prevention measures and resolution tools and powers to credit institutions and investment firms if there is a risk that their financial situation may rapidly deteriorate or if it is likely that they are insolvent kuni 6 kuuni puudub lepingutasu may become insolvent in the future.

The resolution proceedings shall be commenced in the public interest if the winding up and liquidation of a credit institution or investment firm under bankruptcy proceedings does not prevent damage to financial stability and does not avoid contagion to the financial system or real economy. The provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act apply to administrative proceedings prescribed in this Act without prejudice to the rules specific to this Act and the Financial Supervision Authority Act. For the purposes of this Act, a credit institution shall also be deemed to be an investment firm and it is subject to any and all provisions applied to credit institutions, unless otherwise provided for in this Act. For the purposes of this Act, the Financial Supervision Authority shall be a resolution authority, except for the purposes of Divisions 1 and 3 of Chapter 2 and Division 3 of Chapter 3 of this Act where the Financial Supervision Authority is deemed to be a supervisory authority. 2 of this Act pursuant to the provisions of this Act and other legislation. The Financial Supervision Authority shall be a resolution authority of a consolidation group if the parent undertaking of the consolidation group is registered in Estonia and the Financial Supervision Authority exercises financial supervision on a consolidated basis over the consolidation group.

Financial Authority

Financial Authority


Financial Supervision Authority shall find an optimum balance between the achievement of those objectives in a specific situation. For the purposes of this Act, a systemic crisis means a disruption in the financial system with the potential to have serious negative consequences for the internal market and the real economy and with the potential involvement of all types of financial intermediaries, markets and infrastructure. For the purposes of this Act, critical functions mean payment and settlement services provided by credit institutions and other services or operations the discontinuance or significant disruption in the continuous operation of which damages or may damage the functioning of the financial market, financial stability or the real economy or may have a negative effect on other participants in the financial system. For the purposes of this Act, an early intervention measure means a supervisory measure that the Financial Supervision Authority may apply if the financial position of a credit institution is deteriorating and due to this the credit institution infringes or may infringe legislation, administrative acts applicable to the credit institution or internal rules of the credit institution. 2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council. A credit institution shall prepare and submit to the Financial Supervision Authority a recovery plan providing for measures to be taken by the credit institution to restore its financial position following a significant deterioration thereof.

Financial Supervision Authority a recovery plan of the consolidation group headed by the parent undertaking as a whole. Estonia exceeds 20 per cent, unless the value of the assets is below 5 billion euros. If a parent undertaking has been established in the other EEA country, the Financial Supervision Authority may require a subsidiary that is a credit institution established in Estonia and that is part of a consolidation group to prepare a recovery plan. A recovery plan shall be submitted to the Financial Supervision Authority for review.

Prior to the submission of the plan to the Financial Supervision Authority, it shall be approved by the management board and confirmed by the supervisory board of the credit institution or parent undertaking. A credit institution or parent undertaking shall review the recovery plan at least annually or after any changes to the legal status or organisational structure of the credit institution or consolidation group or an event or incident related to its business or its financial situation, which could have a material effect on the plan or necessitates a change in the plan. The Financial Supervision Authority may require that the plan be updated more frequently. The Financial Supervision Authority shall establish a term for preparing the first recovery plan. The recovery plan shall not prescribe the use of extraordinary public financial support to maintain or restore the financial position. The specific conditions for the contents and preparation of the recovery plan may be established by the minister responsible for the area by a regulation. The Financial Supervision Authority may require a credit institution to maintain detailed records of financial contracts to which the credit institution is a party.


Credit institution


Credit institution


A credit institution shall submit such information at the request of the Financial Supervision Authority. Financial Supervision Authority shall take into consideration the appropriateness of the credit institution’s capital and funding structure to the level of complexity of the organisational structure and the risk profile of the credit institution. Financial Supervision Authority shall, if necessary, consult financial supervision authorities of the EEA countries where significant branches of the credit institution are located. Act, the Financial Supervision Authority shall take into consideration the appropriateness of the consolidation group’s capital and funding structure to the organisational structure and the risk profile of the consolidation group. If the Financial Supervision Authority exercises supervision over a subsidiary that is part of a consolidation group and assesses that the subsidiary should draw up a recovery plan on an individual basis, the Financial Supervision Authority shall notify the financial supervision authority exercising supervision on a consolidated basis thereof and endeavour to reach a joint decision with it. Financial Supervision Authority shall defer its decision and await the decision of the European Banking Authority and shall take its decision in accordance with the decision of the European Banking Authority. The joint decision provided for in this section or the decisions taken by the Financial Supervision Authority in the absence of a joint decision shall be recognised as conclusive with regard to resolution authorities of other EEA countries.

Financial Supervision Authority to require a subsidiary credit institution established in Estonia that is part of a consolidation group to draw up a separate recovery plan. Where the Financial Supervision Authority identifies material deficiencies in the recovery plan or material impediments to its implementation, the Financial Supervision Authority shall notify the credit institution or the parent undertaking that those deficiencies or impediments must be remedied within two months of the date of receipt of the notification. Act cannot apply for the preparation of a simplified recovery plan. Financial Supervision Authority immediately after making or becoming aware of the changes. If the applicant has failed to submit all the specified documents or the documents are incomplete or have not been prepared in accordance with the requirements or if the specified assessment is incomplete, the Financial Supervision Authority has the power to require the applicant to remove the deficiencies.

This is the 4th Way Out of Debt that Must Be Tried


When you start to have debt arrears that cannot be repaid, of course you will certainly continue to find a way out in debt, so that the name on the BI blacklist can be cleared. This certainly needs to be done so that in the future, you can still apply for a loan, especially if it is sudden and requires a lot of fresh funds.

For this reason, let’s look at some of the debt-stricken ways you can do to get your new start immediately:


Start saving from now


Start saving from now


It cannot be denied that the way out in debt that must be done first is to start saving from now on. Begin to evaluate again the types of expenses that you usually spend each month. From here, try to see which types of expenses must be cut, and no longer need to be issued. Examples of funds to be cut are for example sports membership fees that must be paid per month because they can be replaced with other cheaper types of sports such as jogging, transportation costs to the office by online taxi which can then be replaced with the commuter line / Trans Jakarta and sharing costs with friends office, or snack costs lunch in the office canteen which was replaced by bringing lunch from home.

Later, you can allocate saved funds to start saving little by little to meet the debt repayment needs that you have to do. Even if it saves you a little, believe me at the end of the month you can see for yourself that it turns out that from the many costs being cut, you have made a total savings far greater than what you imagined!


Utilizing Owned Assets to Increase Revenue


Utilizing Owned Assets to Increase Revenue


One way to get out of debt is to use the assets you have. If you currently have assets in the form of a car or house that can be used. How to use a house for example by renting empty rooms that are not used as a monthly boarding house or daily rent. You can use AirBnB to benefit from it. In addition, you can also use the strategic condition of the house as a parking lot, especially if the location of your home is close to stations, office areas, shopping centers, schools, and other busy locations. 

Not only in terms of property, assets in the form of cars must also be utilized as much as possible. Try to see if there is an opportunity to start a shuttle business for school children around you. Take advantage of the connections that you have with fellow parents to get new customers. Another way that is also quite often done now is to use it as online transportation . This type of transportation is popular in recent years. So many people use their cars or motorbikes as online transportation media so they can increase their side income.

You can also copy this method of course. Alceste currently has a partner program with UBER , where you can enter the UBER referral code from Alceste, to get a bonus of Rp500,000 – after making 50x trips.


Following the Refinancing Program


 Following the Refinancing Program


In simple terms, refinancing is interpreted as a step to use a new loan to pay off old debt, only this new loan has provisions that are more mitigating than the old debt, for example lower interest rates. Means it’s like digging a hole to close a hole, right?

If interpreted roughly, the answer is yes. But actually the refinancing program can be the right and wise step if you are able to choose a program that is really good and not more burdensome. You have to know exactly how much interest is given through a new loan, if it’s the same or even bigger, of course this won’t help you to be free of debt.

Usually in applying for a refinancing program, a collateral will be needed (it can be a property / vehicle). Later the assets of the house / car that you submitted will be estimated, this is where you can get a new loan. So, the cash you get can be directly used to pay the remaining old arrears. In the meantime, you also have to pay off the loan until it is paid off.

How do you take part in a refinancing program like this? You can contact a consultant who helps with your debt management , to get recommendations from financial institutions that can be trusted in providing loans. Choosing a good financial institution is something that you must pay attention to, so that you do not choose the wrong interest program, and loans that can be directly used to pay the debt.


Debt Relief Program


 Debt Relief Program

The way out is getting into the fastest debt, of course, by following a debt relief program. There are 3 types of bank programs that can ease your burden in paying off debts that are still running:

One-time discount / discount

This type of relief program allows customers to reduce their total debt to smaller amounts. As the name implies, even though the customer gets a discount in his debt (generally 20-50%), they must pay directly in one payment. In some cases, this one relief program can give cardholders a discount of up to 70%.  

Extended Installments with Low Interest

Unlike the discount program in one pay, this one program is suitable for those of you who are financially less. In short, customers who have credit card arrears or KTA arrears can extend their installment tenure to be lighter, the interest earned is lower than the prevailing interest rate in general. If the normal interest currently running is in the range of 2.25%, then it is possible to get interest of only 0-2%.

Installment Discounts

Another program with this one, this type of program is a combination of the two types of programs above, namely customers get a discount and the remaining payments can be made in installments. The bank will also see the conditions experienced by the customer first. If the customer has supporting conditions that make it more difficult to pay off the debt, then it is likely that they can get this program (provided that the bank in question has the program).

To get a relief program like the three options above, you can ask for help from a company that provides debt management program services. Companies that provide debt management programs like this usually have experienced teams that are professional in helping you to strategize in paying off debt. Not to mention if you have multiple debts in various banks at the same time, of course a company that provides a debt management program can help you to formulate a strategy and decide which type of arrears must be completed in advance according to the financial conditions that you have. One of the advantages of using a company that provides a debt management program to overcome your credit card debt problems is that you can focus on finding funds to pay off debt. One company that you can use is Alceste.

Alceste international   is the first technology-based professional services company in Indonesia, which provides a debt management program. This program is designed so that consumers who are in debt, have the ability to control their finances again. Alceste Indonesia helps clients through debt management programs, specifically designed according to different needs for each client. This program is a combination of education on various opportunities to increase income and reduce expenditure, as well as conduct negotiation processes on existing bank debt requirements to reach the amount of payment that is in accordance with the ability. The Alceste Indonesia headquarters was established in Jakarta in 2015 by a founding team that has collective experience in the financial sector including debt settlement for more than two decades. Alceste made Indonesia as the center of operations as well as a blueprint for the company’s development plan to other ASEAN countries. Since July 2016, Alceste Indonesia has become the first company in Asia to get   accreditation   from the International Association of Professional Debt Arbitrators (IAPDA).